Field Marshal Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde,
GCB, KCSI (October 20,
1792 – August 14, 1863), was
a British Army officer. After serving in the Peninsular
War and the War of 1812, he commanded the 98th Regiment
of Foot during the First Opium War and then commanded a
brigade during the Second Anglo-Sikh War. He went on to
command the Highland Brigade at the Battle of Alma and
with his "thin red line of Highlanders" he repulsed the
Russian attack on Balaclava during the Crimean War. At
an early stage of the Indian Mutiny, he became
Commander-in-Chief, India and, in that role, he relieved
and then evacuated Lucknow and, after attacking and
decisively defeating Tatya Tope at the Second Battle of
Cawnpore, captured Lucknow again. Whilst still
commander-in-chief he dealt with the 'White Mutiny'
among East India Company troops, and organized the army
sent east in the Second Opium War.
Campbell was born Colin Macliver, the eldest of the four
children of John Macliver, a cabinetmaker in Glasgow,
and Agnes Macliver (née Campbell). His mother and one of
his twin sisters died while he was still a boy. His only
brother was killed fighting in the Peninsular War.
Having been educated at the High School of Glasgow his
uncle, Major John Campbell, took over his care and sent
him to the Royal Military and Naval Academy at Gosport.
Lord Clyde died at Chatham on August 14, 1863, and was
buried in Westminster Abbey.