Muttra is the former name of MathuraMathura is the mythological birth place of Lord Krishna.
references of Mathura are some
2,500 years old. The Buddha is
said to have visited the city
and established monasteries
here. Mathura became a powerful
principality under the Kushan
Empire, whose greatest king was
Kanishka (78 AD). The Chinese
traveler Fa Hien, who visited
Mathura around 400 AD, refers to
Buddhist monasteries flourishing
here. Located on the trade route
and being a prosperous state,
Mathura fell to the sword of
invading armies. Mahmud of
Ghazni in 1017, Sikandar Lodi in
1500 and the Mughal Emperor
Aurangzeb plundered and looted
the city. First Buddhist sites,
and then Hindu temples and
religious sites, were destroyed.
Mathura went into oblivion until the resurgent Hindu movement of the Bhakti cult. Since then, Hindu rulers, chieftains and rich merchants built temples, riverfront ghats and other structures to revive the Krishna legend. Under British rule, the city also got a cantonment called the Civil Lines. Today, Mathura has grown into a crowded town with pilgrim and tourism services as well as small industries.